Ukrainian Urea

Sugar refineries are in business to make money, and do not need to sell their product below the market price. Much sugar is sold world wide through trading companies who buy from refiners and sell through financial markets such as the UK LIFFE and the USA CSCE. These prices are public knowledge and are published in newspapers, on teletext, and on the Internet. To be added to these prices are the distribution, handling, shipping and insurance costs, as well as the profit margins of the parties involved in the whole process. Any of the large, well know refiners, producers or traders such as UK's Tate and Lyle or members of the "RSA" (Refined Sugar Association) will happily quote a price to a buyer who is financially able. As at the 7th of June 1998 the London futures price for whites was at USD262, and an average price CIF is in the USD300-315 range, for ICUMSA 45, the normal high quality product we take in our tea or coffee.
Apart from this visible market, there are also refiners who sell directly to trading companies, who are able to sell at lower prices simply because they have lower overheads, contract to take a large amount in a given period, and work on lower margins than the stock exchange quoted majors. However, the price difference between the two markets ('primary' and 'secondary') is not as large as a casual browser of the Internet BBS sites would think, perhaps 20 -30 USD per tonne at most, depending on the size of the contract and delivery point.
The Standby Letter of Credit - Uses and Abuses
A Standby Letter of Credit is sometimes used in place of a bank guarantee of payment, particularly by American banks, rarely by U. K. Banks. The true purpose of this financial instrument is to provide protection for a Seller should the Buyer fail to pay for his goods at the agreed time. If, for example, an exporter of computer monitors agrees to ship every month 10 containers to his customer in Australia, and the Buyer agrees to pay by electronic means on the 10th day of the month following delivery, the Standby L/C is put in place by the Buyer's bank, and would here probably be equal to the amount due by the Buyer in a two month period. The terms of the L/C will permit the Seller to make a statement to his bank confirming that payment has not been received within the agreed time, and the issuing bank must pay the sums due to the Seller.
The security to be provided by the Buyer to his bank until the end of the contract. The costs and the securities required for this commitment by the Buyer's bank are a matter for negotiation for the Buyer and his bank. The guarantee given by the bank is however part of the L/C text, and is NOT A BANK GUARANTEE, i. E. Is not a separate negotiable
'Fully Funded L/C'

Sales Terms & Specifications:

Model No.UREA-46%
Price TermsFOB / CIF / EXW(Factory Price)
Terms Of PaymentL/C
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